Dissident Full Writeup

Introducing Dissident, the groundbreaking non-stimulant pre-workout that sets a new standard in clean, effective, non-stimulant performance enhancement. With a commitment to purity and potency, Dissident is formulated with only the highest quality ingredients, including NO3-T® Arginine Nitrate, Cognizin® Citicoline, Peak ATP®, and Zynamite®. We believe in transparency and integrity, which is why Dissident contains no fillers, artificial sweeteners, or colors—only natural, premium ingredients carefully selected to optimize your workout experience. Get ready to break free from the norm and join the movement with Dissident.

Potassium (as Potassium Citrate)
Potassium, as sodium’s counterpart, acts as a critical electrolyte primarily by helping to maintain normal levels of fluids inside of our cells. Additionally, it helps muscles to contract and relax, aid in strong nerve function, as well as support normal blood pressure. It works very closely with sodium to create the membrane potential needed for the electrical currents that generate these functions to pass from one cell to the next. While the potassium levels in our body are regulated carefully, a diet lacking enough potassium (especially when combined with excess sodium) or one that contains too much potassium can eventually lead to certain types of dysfunctions and poor health status. When potassium levels in the body increase, the adrenal glands release the hormone aldosterone, which causes the kidneys to excrete excess potassium through the urine. When potassium levels are too low, aldosterone levels are suppressed, which can lead to conservation of potassium thus interfering with balance and negatively affecting transport channels that affect vital bodily functions. Potassium can be gotten from the diet in the form of fresh fruits and vegetables, such as sweet potatoes, beans, tomatoes, spinach, and broccoli but supplementing can be an essential application as well to support an active lifestyle where excretion is higher than can be replenished through diet.

Sea Salt (as Pink Himalayan Sea Salt)
Sodium is one of the most essential electrolytes for our body to utilize. As sodium is often found bound to chloride as sodium-chloride (salt), their function and benefits are going to be very similar in nature. Sodium helps to keep the water (mainly amount of fluid outside of the body’s cells) and electrolyte balance of the body, while also aiding in the contraction and relaxation of muscles as well as conducting nerve impulses. While only 500mg of sodium is needed per day for these functions to occur, we as active individuals need far more sodium to maintain these functions. We mostly lose sodium through sweat and urine, so the more active we are/the more we sweat and the more we urinate, the more sodium is lost. Acquiring enough sodium through food and drink is crucial to establishing equilibrium again to maintain proper functioning and electrolyte balance within the body. The standard American diet is often overloaded with sodium and coupled with inactivity, which can lead to poor health and dysfunction. It is important to engage in physical activity of some kind most days and to eat a diet that is balanced in nutrients to maintain proper health. 

B-Vitamins (Vitamin B6 and Vitamin B12)
B-Vitamins are comprised of a group of 8 specific water-soluble vitamins that work together and independently to perform essential roles in cellular functioning, often acting as co-enzymes in many different catabolic and anabolic reactions. Some of these roles can include energy production, DNA/RNA synthesis and repair, synthesis of numerous neurochemicals and signaling molecules, and certain aspects of brain function. Most of the human clinical and epidemiological research on this area has been almost exclusively done on the subset of B-Vitamins (B6 and B12) as they have exhibited the most beneficial role on homocysteine metabolism. Homocysteine is an amino acid that the body naturally produces. In some individuals, high levels of homocysteine can damage the lining of arteries and other blood vessels as well as can increase blood clotting, which can lead to increased risk of pulmonary embolisms, heart attack, and stroke. It can also lead to brain atrophy, which can be because of increased oxidative stress, DNA damage, and apoptosis of cells that are responsible for neuroregeneration. These high levels of homocysteine can often be because of low B-Vitamin concentrations in the body, specifically B6 and B12, therefore replacing and supplementing with these vitamins can help return homocysteine levels to normal. These vitamins have a high ability to cross the blood brain barrier through dedicated transport mechanisms. Once in the brain these vitamins have a high turnover rate ensuring that their concentrations remain relatively high daily. It is important to note that these vitamins should be attempted to be gotten through diet mostly, but supplementation will ensure their intake.

Citrulline is a non-essential, non-protein amino acid that forms during the urea cycle and forms ornithine when combined with carbon dioxide. Citrulline is also a critical source of endogenous (natural) arginine, as it is rapidly and efficiently converted to arginine in the vascular endothelium and other tissues.

Citrulline’s benefits have been shown to be greater than its parent compound. While arginine undergoes direct hepatic (liver) metabolism through the enzyme arginase, citrulline bypasses hepatic metabolism entirely and it is delivered straight to the bloodstream. The result is that gut absorption and plasma (blood) bioavailability studies comparing citrulline and arginine have shown two things. First, citrulline is less readily destroyed and has greater absorption than arginine. Second, citrulline supplementation increases arginine levels more effectively than arginine supplementation itself.

This translates to promising results. For example, animal studies show a significant increase in anaerobic performance at a 250mg/kg/day serving of citrulline, while studies in humans implicate citrulline in both aerobic and anaerobic performance increases. As a critical part of the urea cycle, citrulline’s performance benefits are thought to be a result of its role in ammonia clearance. Citrulline is implicated in reducing the oxygen cost of muscle processes, along with increasing the rate of post-exercise ATP and phosphocreatine replenishment. As ATP and phosphocreatine are the body’s ‘exercise fuel,’ this may result in citrulline delaying time to exhaustion in aerobic and anaerobic exercise.

Beta Alanine
Carnosine is a bit of an odd duck: we know that it is crucial for muscle function, and that dietary sources of carnosine are essential, but we don’t know precisely how it’s working. Moreover, for decades, we had no idea how to increase intramuscular concentrations, as exogenous carnosine sources degraded in the body so fast as to be effectively useless.

Enter beta-alanine. Simply a different iteration of one of the amino acids that comprises carnosine itself (alanine), beta-alanine has proven to be the most effective means of significantly increasing intramuscular concentrations of carnosine – and therefore of promoting all of carnosine’s various beneficial effects on muscle performance. If that weren’t enough, beta-alanine has also demonstrated beneficial physiological effects independent of its parent compound. To understand why, though, we need to first understand some of the basics behind carnosine itself.

Carnosine, a cytoplasmic dipeptide synthesized from the precursors L-histidine and l-alanine, is present in high concentrations in skeletal muscle and plays a pivotal role as a, “chemical buffer” in myocytes (muscle cells). It has long been known that carnosine concentrations are highest in glycolytic, rather than oxidative muscle fibers (roughly speaking, explosive vs., endurance muscle fibers, respectively), and thus long hypothesized that this amino acid is required for sustained performance during supramaximal exercise. Recent research demonstrates that carnosine exerts its physiological effects in long hypoxic (low oxygen) drives by functioning as a high-capacity pH buffer in skeletal muscle, preventing the pH ratio of plasma from dropping too low – and therefore preventing crucial pH-dependent processes such as protein synthesis from being inhibited by acidosis.

Despite its critical role in skeletal muscle anaerobic performance, intramyocellular synthesis of carnosine is rate-limited by the availability of l-alanine. Unfortunately, the majority of literature demonstrates that attempting to increase intramuscular levels of carnosine via either direct carnosine or alanine supplementation is largely ineffective due to carnosine/alanine pharmacokinetics. Enter beta-alanine. Research with beta-alanine demonstrates consistent and dose-dependent increases to intramuscular carnosine concentrations with beta-alanine supplementation, with certain studies showing an increase of 40-60% with chronic administration. These same literatures reveal a synergistic effect of exercise on beta-alanine supplementation, whereby the muscle adaptive changes associated with resistance training promote further intramuscular carnosine production in response to beta-alanine supplementation.

In simpler language, this essentially means that beta-alanine is a dietary supplement that promotes its own effects in combination with exercise. As you exercise, you simultaneously intensify beta-alanine’s physiological actions – both directly, as well as in the production of intramuscular carnosine. Once ingested, beta-alanine’s exercise-specific beneficial activity is well-established. Elevation of intramuscular carnosine content via beta-alanine supplementation has been shown to improve performance in the following ways.

  • Both acute and chronic increases in total work capacity, measured by total volume during exercise sessions.
  • Highly significant increases to TTE (total time to exhaustion), one of the most accurate and comprehensive measures of endurance. In various trials, beta-alanine supplementation has been shown to increase TTE by upwards of 20%.

Increases to total muscle power output in both acute and chronic trials, suggesting that beta-alanine’s most significant benefit is to those engaging in power-dependent resistance training.

In total, a significant body of research exists to suggest that beta-alanine may significantly increase muscle power output, strength, training volume and output, overall performance in hypoxic (oxygen-deprived) conditions and peak VO2 max (oxygen holding capacity).

These myriad benefits make beta-alanine both one of the most-studied, and most well-rounded dietary supplements. Beta-alanine not only has direct, actionable physiological effects, but also promotes critical muscle physiologic adaptations that promote its own effects.

Arginine Nitrate (NO3-T™)
Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in many vascular and cellular functions as a signaling molecule for cellular respiration, vasodilation, and angiogenesis. NO is produced through both endogenous and exogenous pathways through dietary nitrate ingestion. Nitrates are converted to nitrite, which is then converted to nitric oxide. Found naturally in many foods such as leafy greens and beets, NO has a long history of scientific literature to back its potential effects as an ergogenic aid and other health-promoting effects. In terms of athletic performance, NO typically will make an impact through a few different mechanisms, such as:

  • Delayed onset of fatigue
  • Increased nutrient and oxygen delivery to working muscles via increased vasodilation.
  • Increased loss of metabolic by-products because of high intense exercise

However, when it comes to exercise and utilizing NO for its benefits in athletic performance, consuming whole foods is not always the most optimal form, so dietary supplemental forms of nitrates are often used to help provide this benefit. There are several forms of supplemental nitrates on the market today but for Unmatched Dissident we are utilizing arginine nitrate (NO3-T®). Arginine nitrate is a salt that is synthesized by adding nitric acid to arginine. Arginine is classically utilized for its blood flow and vasodilation improving benefits and when combined with a nitrate, these benefits get exponentially elevated. As discussed above, the pathways with which NO is produced are of importance. Pairing arginine with the patented nitrate (N03-T®) enhances nitric oxide production via the nitrate-nitrite pathway. Organic nitrate esters have a direct relaxant effect on vascular smooth muscles through non-nitric oxide synthase pathways, being directly converted first to nitrites and then to nitric oxide itself. (With attendant increases to guanylyl cyclase and then cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which relaxes the vasculature.) Pairing both nitric oxide synthase and non-nitric oxide synthase-dependent mechanisms of actions theoretically enhances total NO production, given that rate-limiting enzymatic pathways in either mechanism do not determine total NO production.

In an absolute sense, both inorganic and organic nitrates also possess benefits beyond a secondary NO-production pathway. Studies in athletes have demonstrated that nitrate ingestion prior to both aerobic and anaerobic exercise meaningfully increases both delay to fatigue and total work capacity – likely a consequence of nitrate’s activation in hypoxic (oxygen-deprived tissues). Nitrate effectively reduces the oxygen cost of muscular activity, making contractions more efficient.

Peak ATP®
Adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP) is the single most important molecule for our body’s cells. Every single cell in the human uses ATP as its primary source of energy for processes such as ion transport, muscle contraction, nerve impulse propagation, DNA/RNA synthesis, and chemical reactions within the body. Our body stores ATP and can produce ATP through the presence of oxygen from cellular respiration, the breakdown of foods ingested, as well as under certain anerobic conditions. Maintaining high levels of ATP are essential to continuously perform at optimal levels both in a physical and physiological way. This is important because its not just about ATP availability but the timing and localization of ATP can be essential for the success of multiple physiological and metabolic actions. Knowing this, ingesting forms of ATP have been on the rise recently in the nutraceutical industry. Peak ATP® is a revolutionary innovation as a clinically validated and patented form of adenosine 5’-triphosphate disodium, which is the only nutritional ingredient that has an identical structure to the same ATP produced and utilized by the human body. Now for the common individual, ATP supplementation may not pose much of a benefit as their typical daily life and nutrition is likely sufficient, but for the individual engaged in heavy and intense physical activity and exercise the demand for ATP and useable energy at the ready is essential to performance and continuing to perform at a high level as well as recovering optimally. The demand for ATP in these cases can be increased up to 1000-fold during exercise and the rate at which ATP is broken down can limit performance.

Peak ATP® helps to provide this readily available form of ATP as a highly bioavailable form of usable energy that potentiates the role of ATP in the human body. In relation to exercise, this equates to allowing for the potential of athletes to do more and achieve more, with much less fatigue. Peak ATP® also has been shown to benefit athletic performance through enhancements in:

Vasodilation and increasing blood flow by up to 54%.

Calcium metabolism in muscle, which is essential for muscle contractions

ERK-mTOR pathway, which is the pathway that promotes protein synthesis and muscle hypertrophy.

It’s a known subject that ATP is essential to the human body and its processes and maintaining high levels is of the utmost importance for optimal functioning. During increased energy needs these ATP pools naturally in the body can be depleted rather quickly, leading to less-than-optimal functioning and overall resulting factors. Peak ATP® has been shown to stimulate greater ATP production, decrease declines in ATP pools, and allow for greater energy usage potential. Peak ATP® can allow anyone to get more out of their body by providing the needed energy to perform at a high level.

Cognizin® Citicoline (Cytidine 5’-diphosphocholine)
Choline is an essential nutrient involved in numerous metabolic pathways, including DNA regulation and repair, protein function, and metabolism. Perhaps most importantly, the critical neurotransmitter acetylcholine is produced directly from free choline via cholinergic neurons. Acetylcholine is then responsible for several functions itself, most crucially as the compound which induces muscular contraction, and as the neuromodulator partially responsible for modulating risk/reward, arousal, and enhancing memory.

Choline’s essential role as a substrate for acetylcholine, and therefore brain development, is well documented in animal models. These studies demonstrate that levels of free maternal choline have a direct and fundamental impact on prenatal brain development, with the enhancements or deficits lasting into adulthood. Choline’s enhancing effect is particularly prominent in the hippocampus. In humans, the hippocampus is primarily involved in the consolidation of memory (taking short, episodic memory and translating it into long-term memory) and the learning of new information. Acetylcholine is a critical component in these processes, as mentioned above, and choline may therefore play a potential role in these processes as well by providing the substrate for acetylcholine synthesis.

Citicoline (Cytidine 5’-diphosphocoline), also known as CDP-choline, is a potentially superior form of choline due to its ability to cross the blood brain barrier. In fact, most studies with neurological or nootropic effects used this form. In that regard, studies in otherwise healthy, normal adults demonstrated meaningful and statistically significant impacts on working memory, recall, and attention. We have chosen to use the clinically tested, Cognizin®, in this premium formula as our primary choline source. Unlike other synthetic stimulants that can cause a rapid decline in effectiveness after an initial burst of energy, Cognizin® can offer critical nutritional support for the brain that can help support needed focus and attention.

Zynamite® is a standardized extract of Mangifera indica that has been shown to improve mental energy as well as improve peak power output and reduce fatigue. Zynamite® works on a two-fold system of benefit, one being during cognitive stresses and the other being during physical stresses. Under cognitive stresses, Zynamite® helps modulate neurotransmitter responses, which can enhance focus and attention during mentally draining tasks, improve reaction time, and reduce cognitive fatigue all while maintaining heart rate and blood pressure. Under physical stresses, Zynamite® can improve certain athletic performance variables acting as an ergogenic modulator. It can improve brain oxygenation during physical activity, which leads to improved cognitive performance, as well as reduce blood lactate levels during long bouts of intense exercise.

The clear mechanism of action for Zynamite® is not entirely clear but a few studies have found that mangiferin significantly inhibited catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT), which is the enzyme responsible for catecholamine neurotransmitter degradation. COMT is mostly prevalent in brain tissues so its inhibition can predominantly impact dopaminergic function in the brain, which can lead to improved working memory, attentiveness, and overall greater neurological function. Another potential brain-relevant mechanism of action has been seen in mangiferin’s ability to inhibit acetylcholinesterase as well as other activities that negatively impact cholinergic activity. Increased acetylcholine activity can have a beneficial, inter-related effect on both attention and memory. These interactions can drive downstream modulation of neuroinflammation, neurotransmission, and neurotrophin receptor and signaling pathways that have a positive influence on cerebral blood flow thus improving cognition.

Zynamite® has also been shown to have an impact on overall athletic performance and on overall recovery status from athletic events. Studies have shown that mangiferin in combination with quercetin (included in the next ingredient below), have been able to exert strong ergogenic effects such as increased muscle power, enhanced peak VO2 during prolonged events, as well as provide a strong suppression of muscle pain and soreness following a physically fatiguing event leading to accelerated muscle recovery. Zynamite® is a unique ingredient that can improve actions on the inside and out with an immense effect on overall physical and mental performance.

Pine Bark Extract (Pinus pinaster) (95% Proanthocyanidins)
Pine bark extract, also known as Pycnogenol, is a natural antioxidant rich supplement that has shown positive benefit when it comes to human health and nutrition. It has a significant impact on nitric oxide production in the body, which is responsible for improving vasodilation, circulation, and blood flow. This increased blood flow and circulation can be extremely beneficial for overall cardiovascular health, aid in workout recovery, as well as improve overall muscular performance and growth. Pine bark has also shown high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which show its ability to control oxidative stress by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and suppressing production of peroxides thus improving recovery rates following intense workouts.

Huperzia serrata Extract (1% Huperzine A)
Huperzia serrata is a compound found in the plant families of Huperziaceae, Lycopodiaceae, and Selaginella and is endemic to China. The Lycopodium alkaloid Huperizine-A, found in UNMATCHED DISSIDENT, was first isolated from a folk medicinal preparation in 1984.

Due to the potent anticholinesterase activities of Huperzine A, the compound has been evaluated in numerous in vitro, in vivo, and human trials. These data suggest that Huperzine’s Ache activities are most potent in the cortex, hippocampus, and striatum (at least in rats) – key regions in the brain responsible for forming, coordinating, and recalling memory. These effects are assisted by Huperzine A’s high oral bioavailability. Studies using microdialysis technique in rats, for example, showed that the response to Huperzine A was dose-dependent and substantially lowered the level of ACh in cortex.

Huperzine A has also shown promise in humans. Used as a reversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase, Huperzine A has shown positive benefits on cognition and as a therapy for individuals suffering from Alzheimer’s Disease. This is partly due to its inhibitory factors on acetylcholine but also its neuroprotective properties. In another study on memory and learning performance, 34 pairs of middle school students complaining of memory inadequacy were given a small dose of Huperzine A. The students were then match paired along a number of vectors and provided tests on working memory. The results of this study exhibited that HupA markedly improved the memory function of adolescent students.

Pahlavani, N., Jafari, M., Sadeghi, O., Rezaei, M., Rasad, H., Rahdar, H. A., & Entezari, M. H. (2014). L-arginine supplementation and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in healthy men: a double-blind randomized clinical trial. F1000Research3, 306. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.5877.2

McRae M. P. (2016). Therapeutic Benefits of l-Arginine: An Umbrella Review of Meta-analyses. Journal of chiropractic medicine15(3), 184–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcm.2016.06.002

Macuh, M.; Knap, B. Effects of Nitrate Supplementation on Exercise Performance in Humans: A Narrative Review. Nutrients 202113, 3183. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13093183

Trepanowski JF, Farney TM, McCarthy CG, Schilling BK, Craig SA, Bloomer RJ. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. J Strength Cond Res. 2011 Dec;25(12):3461-71.

Ueland PM. Choline and betaine in health and disease. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2011;34:3–15.

Zeisel SH, Niculescu MD. Perinatal choline influences brain structure and function. Nutr Rev 2006;64:197–203.

Zeisel SH. The fetal origins of memory: the role of dietary choline in optimal brain development. J Pediatr 2006;149(suppl):S131–6.

Parnetti L, Amenta F, Gallai V. Choline alphoscerate in cognitive decline and in acute cerebrovascular disease: an analysis of published clinical data. Mech Ageing Dev. (2001)

Parnetti L, et al. Multicentre study of l-alpha-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine vs ST200 among patients with probable senile dementia of Alzheimer's type. Drugs Aging. (1993)

Barbagallo Sangiorgi G, et al. alpha-Glycerophosphocholine in the mental recovery of cerebral ischemic attacks. An Italian multicenter clinical trial. Ann N Y Acad Sci. (1994)

Alpha-GPC and power output; growth hormone.

Ceda GP, et al. alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine administration increases the GH responses to GHRH of young and elderly subjects. Horm Metab Res. (1992)

Agarwal N, et al. Short-term administration of uridine increases brain membrane phospholipid precursors in healthy adults: a 31-phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy study at 4T. Bipolar Disord. (2010)

Babb SM, et al. Chronic citicoline increases phosphodiesters in the brains of healthy older subjects: an in vivo phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Psychopharmacology (Berl). (2002)

Silveri MM, et al. Citicoline enhances frontal lobe bioenergetics as measured by phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. NMR Biomed. (2008)

PNAS, Sep 20 2005, 102(38):13681-13686. L-citrulline and L-arginine supplementation retards the progression of high-cholesterol-diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits.

Br J Clin Pharma, 2008, 65:51-59  Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of oral L-citrulline and L-arginine: impact on nitric oxide metabolism.

Urology, Jan 2011, 77(1):119-22. Oral L-citrulline supplementation improves erection hardness in men with mild erectile dysfunction

Tangphao O, et al. Pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral L-arginine in normal volunteers. Br J Clin Pharmacol. (1999).

Curis E, Crenn P, Cynober L. Citrulline and the gut. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. (2007).

Bahri S, et al. Mechanisms and kinetics of citrulline uptake in a model of human intestinal epithelial cells. Clin Nutr. (2008).

Takeda K, et al. Effects of citrulline supplementation on fatigue and exercise performance in mice. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). (2011)

Drozak J, et al Molecular identification of carnosine synthase as ATP-grasp domain-containing protein 1 (ATPGD1) . J Biol Chem. (2010)

Miyaji T, et al Expression profiles of carnosine synthesis-related genes in mice after ingestion of carnosine or ß-alanine . J Int Soc Sports Nutr. (2012)

Chez MG, et al Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of L-carnosine supplementation in children with autistic spectrum disorders . J Child Neurol. (2002)

Hipkiss AR On the enigma of carnosine’s anti-ageing actions . Exp Gerontol. (2009)

Boldyrev AA Does carnosine possess direct antioxidant activity . Int J Biochem. (1993)

Hipkiss AR, Michaelis J, Syrris P Non-enzymatic glycosylation of the dipeptide L-carnosine, a potential anti-protein-cross-linking agent . FEBS Lett. (1995)

Dutka TL, Lamb GD Effect of carnosine on excitation-contraction coupling in mechanically-skinned rat skeletal muscle . J Muscle Res Cell Motil. (2004)

Bauer K, Schulz M Biosynthesis of carnosine and related peptides by skeletal muscle cells in primary culture . Eur J Biochem. (1994)

Dunnett M, Harris RC Influence of oral beta-alanine and histidine supplementation on the carnosine content of the gluteus medius . Equine Vet J Suppl. (1999)

Kennedy D. O. (2016). B Vitamins and the Brain: Mechanisms, Dose and Efficacy--A Review. Nutrients8(2), 68. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8020068

Tang L. L., Wang R., Tang X. C. (2005). Effects of huperzine A on secretion of nerve growth factor in cultured rat cortical astrocytes and neurite outgrowth in rat PC12 cells. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 26, 673–67810.

Tuszynski M. H., Sang H., Yoshida K., Gage F. H. (1991). Recombinant human nerve growth factor infusions prevent cholinergic neuronal degeneration in the adult primate brain. Ann. Neurol. 30, 625–63610.

Wang C. Y., Zheng W., Wang T., Xie J. W., Wang S. L., Zhao B. L., et al. (2011). Huperzine A activates Wnt/β-catenin signaling and enhances the nonamyloidogenic pathway in an Alzheimer transgenic mouse model. Neuropsychopharmacology 36, 1073– 108910.

Wang L. M., Han Y. F., Tang X. C. (2000). Huperzine A improves cognitive deficits caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion in rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 398, 65–7210. Wang R., Xiao X. Q., Tang X. C. (2001a). Huperzine A attenuates hydrogen peroxideinduced apoptosis by regulating expression of apoptosis-related genes in rat PC12 cells. Neuroreport 12, 2629–2634.

Wang R., Zhang H. Y., Tang X. C. (2001b). Huperzine A attenuates cognitive dysfunction and neuronal degeneration caused by beta- amyloid protein-(1–40) in rat. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 421, 149–15610.1016/S0014-2999(01)01030-5. Wang X. D., Zhang J. M., Yang H. H., Hu G. Y. (1999).

Modulation of NMDA receptor by huperzine A in rat cerebral cortex. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 20, 31–35. Wang Y. E., Yue D. X., Tang X. C. (1986). Anti-cholinesterase activity of huperzine A. [Article in Chinese]. Zhongguo Yao Li Xue Bao 7, 110–113.

Rathmacher, J. A., Fuller, J. C., Jr, Baier, S. M., Abumrad, N. N., Angus, H. F., & Sharp, R. L. (2012). Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplementation improves low peak muscle torque and torque fatigue during repeated high intensity exercise sets. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition9(1), 48. https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-9-48

Arts, I. C., Coolen, E. J., Bours, M. J., Huyghebaert, N., Stuart, M. A., Bast, A., & Dagnelie, P. C. (2012). Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) supplements are not orally bioavailable: a randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over trial in healthy humans. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition9(1), 16. https://doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-9-16

Coolen, E. J., Arts, I. C., Bekers, O., Vervaet, C., Bast, A., & Dagnelie, P. C. (2011). Oral bioavailability of ATP after prolonged administration. The British journal of nutrition105(3), 357–366. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114510003570

Purpura, M., Rathmacher, J. A., Sharp, M. H., Lowery, R. P., Shields, K. A., Partl, J. M., Wilson, J. M., & Jäger, R. (2017). Oral Adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) Administration Increases Postexercise ATP Levels, Muscle Excitability, and Athletic Performance Following a Repeated Sprint Bout. Journal of the American College of Nutrition36(3), 177–183. https://doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2016.1246989

Wilson, J. M., Joy, J. M., Lowery, R. P., Roberts, M. D., Lockwood, C. M., Manninen, A. H., Fuller, J. C., De Souza, E. O., Baier, S. M., Wilson, S. M., & Rathmacher, J. A. (2013). Effects of oral adenosine-5'-triphosphate supplementation on athletic performance, skeletal muscle hypertrophy and recovery in resistance-trained men. Nutrition & metabolism10(1), 57. https://doi.org/10.1186/1743-7075-10-57

Jacob, J., Amalraj, A., Divya, C., Janadri, S., Manjunatha, P. M., & Gopi, S. (2018). Oral toxicity study of sports nutritional powder in Wistar rats: A 90 day repeated dose study. Toxicology reports5, 497–503. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2018.04.001

Jacob J et al. “A randomized single dose parallel study on enhancement of nitric oxide in serum and saliva with the use of natural sports supplement in healthy adults.” Journal of Dietary Supplements, vol. 15, no. 2 (March 4, 2018): 161-172

Gopi S et al. “Natural sports supplement formulation for physical endurance: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.” Sport Sciences for Health. Published online February 17, 2017.

Wightman, E. L., Jackson, P. A., Forster, J., Khan, J., Wiebe, J. C., Gericke, N., & Kennedy, D. O. (2020). Acute Effects of a Polyphenol-Rich Leaf Extract of Mangifera indica L. (Zynamite) on Cognitive Function in Healthy Adults: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study. Nutrients12(8), 2194. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082194

Gelabert-Rebato, M., Martin-Rincon, M., Galvan-Alvarez, V., Gallego-Selles, A., Martinez-Canton, M., Vega-Morales, T., Wiebe, J. C., Fernandez-Del Castillo, C., Castilla-Hernandez, E., Diaz-Tiberio, O., & Calbet, J. A. L. (2019). A Single Dose of The Mango Leaf Extract Zynamite® in Combination with Quercetin Enhances Peak Power Output During Repeated Sprint Exercise in Men and Women. Nutrients11(11), 2592. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11112592

Martin-Rincon, M., Gelabert-Rebato, M., Galvan-Alvarez, V., Gallego-Selles, A., Martinez-Canton, M., Lopez-Rios, L., Wiebe, J. C., Martin-Rodriguez, S., Arteaga-Ortiz, R., Dorado, C., Perez-Regalado, S., Santana, A., Morales-Alamo, D., & Calbet, J. A. L. (2020). Supplementation with a Mango Leaf Extract (Zynamite®) in Combination with Quercetin Attenuates Muscle Damage and Pain and Accelerates Recovery after Strenuous Damaging Exercise. Nutrients12(3), 614. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12030614