Longevity EAA Full Writeup

Vegan BCAA 2:1:1 and EAA Blend
If one were to think of the body as a construction project, amino acids would be the most basic building materials: raw lumber, mortar, bricks, and so on. While the assembly of these building blocks is of course critically important to the function of the building – and one of the amino acids, leucine, controls its own assembly – the quality and availability of the materials themselves is arguably more important. Not enough concrete? The foundation cracks and the building falls.

Your body is the exact same way. It is comprised of various amino acids, both essential and non-essential, that comprise the cellular basis of each cell in your body. When it comes down to skeletal muscle, the most important are the EAAs – or essential chained amino acids. Comprised of nine amino acids, these compounds effectively control the rate at which your muscle grows (hypertrophies), its contractile force, its endurance, and so on – to say they are massively important is an understatement. For this reason, they form the basis of any competently designed supplement protocol.

Collectively, as stated above, the essential amino acids are famous for their role in skeletal muscle protein synthesis and metabolism. Of the nine, leucine is both the most physiologically important with respect to muscle mass, and the most extensively studied. Data on leucine demonstrate this amino acid plays critical roles in stimulating skeletal muscle protein synthesis, and ribosomal biogenesis and assembly (the literal building of muscle tissue), along with playing a lesser role in insulin signaling and gluconeogenic processes. As a result of these diverse roles, leucine has been demonstrated to significantly stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis, and attenuate protein degradation, by both insulin-mediated and non-insulin mediated mechanisms.

Leucine’s insulin-mediated effects are largely the result of its activation of the classical insulin receptor substrate (IRS)/phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR signal transduction pathway. In this pathway, the bonding of a substrate (glucose) eventually activates a compound known as Akt. Once phosphorylated and activated, Akt signals the release of the famous mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). mTOR then increases the translation of muscle-cell ribosomal proteins that increase ribosome biogenesis, which is the literal production of proteins. Leucine has additionally been shown to positively regulate protein synthesis independent of insulin. In certain trials where rapamycin and leucine were co-administered, rapamycin showed only partial inhibition of leucine’s effects on muscle protein synthesis.

In more practical terms, there is a significant body of evidence demonstrating the positive effect of amino acids on athletic performance. Extensive studies in exercise-trained populations reveal that, collectively, amino acids may:

  • Reduce total muscle soreness after intense resistance training, and/or further delay its onset.
  • Decrease muscle recovery time between bouts of intense resistance exercise training.
  • Increase lean body mass when used daily, in conjunction with diet and exercise.

Prior to discussing the physiological effects of glutamine – and more specifically, whether it poses any tangible benefits to the proliferation of skeletal muscle tissue – we need to discuss its place in supplementation, in general. Glutamine is perhaps the most lamented of all the amino acids, regularly denigrated to the point that it’s a joke to many athletes. This is largely a problem of perception: glutamine is not, specifically speaking, an anabolic amino acid, and therefore is of little use as it pertains to, “building tissue.” But, “building tissue” is not the only purpose a supplement may have, and the corollary, preserving tissue (or anti-catabolism) is arguably as important. It is in this capacity that glutamine shines, and for this reason it is included in this formula.

The literature in this context is encouraging. Various studies demonstrate that glutamine supplementation may suppress or inhibit the action of enzymes known as proteases, responsible for the hydrolytic breakdown of protein and amino acids into smaller compounds. These studies show both site-specific and whole-body reductions in this process known as, “proteolysis” in the later stages of skeletal muscle recovery. While encouraging, these data are perhaps not as promising as glutamine’s more indirect effects on the catabolic process – namely its effect on glucose metabolism. In both in vitro and in vivo trials, glutamine has shown the ability to promote the synthesis and storage of glycogen (glycogenesis), both in concert with an independent of carbohydrate ingestion.

These effects are most pronounced in physiologic situations where carbohydrate metabolism reliant on insulin signaling are compromised – such as the chronic caloric deficits present in a dieting situation. In this context, glutamine may function as a critical addition, potentiating the body’s glycogen synthesis and storage response; maximizing the limited amount of carbohydrates a dieter may be ingesting.

Setria® Glutathione
Glutathione is an amino acid tripeptide containing molecule of L-glutamic acid, L-cysteine, and Glycine. It is vital to many different properties and is best known for being a powerful antioxidant. The ‘glutathione system’ comprises the enzymes that synthesize glutathione within a cell as dedicated enzymes that use glutathione for its antioxidant effects. Glutathione supplementation is thought to support this pool of glutathione present in cells and thus maintain the efficacy of the entire system. Free radicals can be a byproduct of many different things such as exercising, eating, and breathing to name a few. When these molecules overcome the body at the cellular level, this constant barrage can have negative impacts on health and overall wellness. Although the body can produce glutathione on its own, under some conditions the body’s need for glutathione is outpaced by its ability to produce it. Hence supplementation can be of benefit to the right individual. Setria® L-Glutathione provides a potent supply of antioxidants that bind these free radicals, which can help keep them from causing lasting damage. Glutathione not only can neutralize free radicals, but it also can reactivate other antioxidants, such as Vitamin C and Vitamin E. Once these vitamins and their antioxidants do their job of neutralizing free radicals, they become unstable radicals themselves. Glutathione can help recycle these unstable molecules back to their antioxidant rich properties.

Glutathione has also been shown to improve muscular performance and recovery by promoting muscle protein synthesis through the regulation of critical enzymes involved in protein synthesis, which is essential to their growth and repair. Additionally, glutathione supports the immune system, which is vital for overall health and muscle recovery. Exercise induced muscular trauma can impair immune function, lead to excessive inflammation, and lengthen recovery time. Glutathione’s inclusion in the EAA formula can synergistically aim to increase muscle protein synthesis and improve overall exercise recovery.

Spectra™ is the first scientifically validated formula of fruits, vegetables, and herbs shown to inhibit free radical production, optimize cellular metabolic activity, and increase nitric oxide levels within our bodies

Spectra™ represents the latest evolution in the fight against potentially-damaging free radicals. For the first time anywhere, the biological effects of a natural supplement on the changes of oxidative and nitrosative stress markers, as well as cellular metabolic activity, have been clinically observed in the human body. Spectra™ has been reported to decrease ROS, increase cellular oxygen consumption in blood and mitochondria, decrease extracellular H2O2, and reduce TNFα-induced inflammatory response in humans.

Astragin® (Astragalus membranaceous (root) and Panax notoginseng (root))
AstraGin® is a trademarked combination of Astragalus membranaceous and Panax notoginseng that has been widely used in the supplement manufacturing industry largely for due to its clinically studied benefits for improving absorption of nutrients, peptides, and amino acids. Some statistics include increased absorption of creatine, leucine, citrulline, and other peptides by up to 67%, increased curcumin absorption by 92%, increases polyunsaturated fatty acids (from flax and fish oil) by 58% and 100% respectively, as well as can increase ATP production in the liver by 18%. AstraGin® has been shown capable of increasing muscle protein synthesis and increased mTOR through enhanced leucine absorption, which has an influence on improved glucose metabolism and mitochondrial functions. In addition to this benefit, AstraGin’s® ability to enhance polyunsaturated fatty acid absorption while also inhibiting saturated fatty acid absorption, thus reducing the risk of impaired glucose metabolism and mitochondrial function, can enhance ATP synthesis through mitochondrial respiration, and increase oxidative phosphorylation.

It has been further studied how Astragalus and Panax notoginseng specifically can protect mitochondria and enhance their function towards anti-aging. The proposed mechanism leads to Astragalus acting as a free radical scavenger, which can inhibit mitochondrial permeability transition and increase the activity of antioxidants against the peroxidation of membrane lipids. Panax notoginseng also works in a similar fashion through decreased free radical production. This lipid peroxidation has been shown to be a major cause of decreases in mitochondrial function. In addition to this, ensuring a highly permeable environment around the mitochondrial membrane is crucial for maintaining mitochondrial functions. This permeability allows for the passage of key electro chemicals to cross the gradient allowing for the process of energy development for the cells. These are just a few of the studied benefits that Astragalus and Panax notoginseng have on mitochondrial function but it paints a clear picture as to how they can influence energy metabolism and work to enhance protect mitochondrial functions, improve anti-aging activity, and enhance longevity.

Yuth® (Spermidine Trihydrochloride)
It might be common knowledge, but it is important to remember that efficient cellular functioning is essential to our overall health, wellness, and longevity. We often only discuss large variables, like training, macronutrients, sleep, etc. as being essential (which they are) that we tend to forget the importance of how our cellular building blocks and our internal playing field influence our overall well-being and health and wellness goals. Improving bodily function at the cellular level first can prove more fruitful in some respects as it involves addressing certain problems at the source or providing support where most issues usually begin.

Cells are involved in all of our body’s processes and functions. From metabolism, respiration, muscle growth, and organ function, our body is essentially controlled by cells and their actions. Now just like our daily obligations require us to be attentive, fit, and ready to take on tasks so does our body rely on these cells to physically capable of performing under the rigors that we put our bodies through. Our body utilizes several processes to ensure our cells can perform to their required capabilities. Apoptosis, or programmed cell death; necrosis, or premature death; and autophagy, or disposing of defunct cells (recycling). Spermidine, a polyamine, is thought to enhance this process of autophagy and increase longevity overall. This recycling of defunct cells allows them to then be used elsewhere in the body to maintain health. This defense mechanism has been shown to support the regression of metabolic disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, and signs of aging. This process of loss of DNA at the end of chromosomes, or telomere attrition, accelerates with age, so utilizing tools that can help maintain this recycling process as we age can be essential at prolonging longevity. Spermidine can in fact be found in foods we consume. Mushrooms, broccoli, organ meats, apples, etc. are just a few but supplementation can also prove essential in keeping our spermidine levels elevated as we age and if these foods are not eaten in sufficient quantities on a day-to-day basis. We’ve chosen to use Yuth® branded Spermidine Trihydrochloride, from Compound Solutions, as our source in this formula due to its high purity content and overall quality.

Most clinical data on spermidine at this moment has been limited to in vitro tests or in mice, spermidine has been shown to correlate to reduced mortality rate and an overall increase in human life expectancy. These tests further provide evidence to improved health variables related to aging in humans due to its impact at the cellular level on vital cell structures like the mitochondria.

While we can’t stop ourselves or the essential components of our body from aging, we do have the ability to impact our lifespan in a positive way. Through living a lifestyle that promotes good overall health and well-being as well as utilizing tools, like LONGEVITY-EAA, that can fill in the gaps we lack as we age, can be a vital combination in improving overall cellular function as well as longevity on this earth.

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